Saturday, September 3, 2011

Eclectic Approach in Teaching English


Introduction to Eclectic Approach
Larsen-Freeman (2000) and Mellow (2000) both have used the term principled eclecticism to describe a desirable, coherent, pluralistic approach to language teaching. Eclecticism involves the use of a variety of language learning activities, each of which may have very different characteristics and may be motivated by different underlying assumptions. The use eclecticism is due to the fact that there are strengths as well as weaknesses of single theory based methods. Reliance upon a single theory of teaching has been criticized because the use of a limited number of techniques can become mechanic. The students, thus, cannot get benefits of learning. Relativism i.e. to emphasize the context of pedagogical situations is also criticized because it leads towards dissimilarities rather than similarities between teaching contexts. The use of eclecticism does not mean to mix up different approaches randomly. There must have some philosophical backgrounds and some systematic relation among different activities. Usually it is recommended to mix structural approaches with communicative use of language.
The kind of eclecticism we tried to implement here is a mixture of traditional reading based approach and some conversational practice for students. We have tried to see language based on structures but which cannot be acquired without reasonable practice by communication and conversation.
So the main postulates of this approach can be as follows.
Theory of Language
Language is based on structures which are used to convey meanings, which perform functions.
Theory of Language Learning
We see language learning as a combined process of structural and communicative activities.

Objectives of Current Lesson Plan
We shall try to teach the students about past simple tense by a combination of different traditional reading, writing and conversational activities.
Teaching Material
Teaching material is different worksheets and black board.
Role of Teacher
Here we are adopting the role of teacher roughly equal to CLT. We consider teacher as a facilitator: who facilitates the learner, as a guide: who guides the students, as a slightly higher rank official: who uses his authority to conduct the class and make the process of teaching and learning systematic.
Role of Learner
Learner is seen by us as the center of teaching learning activities. His participation is very important. So teacher will always try to involve the learners. As well as the learner's role in class should be cooperative and they will be allowed to communicate, self correct each other and ask questions about the substance provided for teaching learning activities.
Lesson Plan
In this lesson our focus is on Past Simple Tense. For this purpose we shall try to present a series of activities which will provide the learners' opportunity to practice the structures with in context with conscious and unconscious state of mind. The students are supposed to be class 6 students.

  • Activity 1: Reading of Passage (10 Mins Approx)
  • Activity 2: Question Answering about Passage (10 Mins Approx)
  • Activity 3: Fill in the Blanks (10 Mins Approx)
  • Activity 4: Past Simple Practice (10 Mins Approx)
  • Activity 5: Story Writing (10 Mins Approx)
    Activity 1: Reading of Passage (10 Mins Approx)
Miss Wajeeha will present a passage for reading. The purpose is to provide a context for next activities.

The Lady With the Lamp

Florance Nightingale was a young girl, in the early part of the nineteenth century. At that time, the hospitals were not as good as they are now. The doctors and nurses were not trained about healing wounds. Many poor soldiers died because of this in result of war. So she wanted to be a nurse. But her father did not want that. He sent Florance to travel many countries. She did not forget and visited hospitals. She worked in convents where nurses were trained. She worked in the hospital and improved the system. She worked day and night. She looked after the wounded soldiers. She used to walk around the hospital with a small lamp. So the hospitals became clean and nurses were much more skillful. She stayed at hospital till the end of the war and saved hundreds of lives.
That's why today, nurses all over the world remember “The Lady with the Lamp”

Activity 2: Question Answer (10 Mins Approx)
  The purpose is conversational practice in a controlled situation as well as to remind what students previously read. It will allow the students to remember the new vocabulary items specially the content words used in the passage. As well as students will unconsciously practice past simple tense.

Questions:-
Q1:- Who was Nightingale?
Q2:- Are hospitals today better or worse than in Florance Nightingale's times?

Q3:- Why did many soldiers die? 

Q4:- Did her father wanted his daughter to be a nurse?

Q5:- Why did she want to learn about nursing?

Q6:- What she did for the improvement of the system of hospitals?

Q7:- Why she was called “The Lady with the Lamp”?

Activity 3: Fill in the Blanks (10 Mins Approx)
 The purpose is again to let the students interact with the teacher and to memorize the vocabulary items.

Fill in the blanks with appropriate words.
  1. Florance was a _________ girl. (Old, Young)
  2. She wanted to be a _________. (Nurse, Doctor)
  3. She visited _________. (Hospitals, Saloons)
  4. Florance is called ____________________. (Lady with a Piano, Lady with a Lamp)
  5. Florance was in the early part of _____________. (Twentieth century, Nineteenth century)
  6. The hospitals were not so _________. (Good, Beautiful)
  7. But his _________ did not want that. (Brother, Father)
  8. She worked in a ___________. (School, Hospital)
  9. Andy many _________ soldiers died because of that. (rich, poor)
  10. He sent Florance to travel many ________. (Countries, Villages)
  11. She worked in convents where ________ were trained. (Teachers, Nurses)
  12. She improved the system and worked ___________. (Day and night, for a month)
  13. She used to walk around the hospitals with __________. (a lamp, a piano)
  14. Hospitals became _________. (clean, ugly)
  15. Nurses were much more __________ now. (reasonable, skillful)
  16. She stayed at hospital until the end of ________. (war, dinner)
  17. Nurses all over the world __________ “The Lady with the Lamp”. (remember, forget)
Activity 4: Practice of Past Simple Tense (10 Mins Approx)
The purpose of this activity is to convert the previous unconscious knowledge about the past simple tense to conscious one. The definition and structural formula will be presented in traditional way and then the sentences will be practiced in substitution tables.

The Simple Past Tense
The simple past tense is used to talk about actions that happened at a specific time in the past. You form the simple past of a verb by adding -ed onto the end of a regular verb but, irregular verb forms have to be learned.
Practice of to be statements in Past Simple. Positive and Negative Sentences.
I
was




Happy.
We
were
You
was not
He
were not
She

It
They

Practice of regular verbs in Past Simple. Positive and Negative Sentences.
I

visited

did not visit


hospitals.
We
You
He
She
improved

did not improve

the system.
It
They
Practice of to be statements and regular verbs in Past Simple. Interrogative Sentences.
Was
I
happy?

Were
we

Did
you

visit

hospitals?
he
she
it
improve
the system?
they

Activity 5: Story Writing (10 Mins Approx)
  The purpose is to let the students use their minds and provide linguistic output in desired form i.e. past simple tense. A picture will be presented and then the students will be asked to write a story according to their perception of the picture. Reasonable guide and clues will be provided by the teacher after the students having brainstormed.

1 comment:

Muhammad Shakir Aziz said...

i found this entry is very helpful. Thanks for sharing it

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